The Application of Low-Pressure Die Casting in the Automotive Industry and Other Industries

1. What is low pressure die casting?

Low pressure die casting is a production method that uses pressure (rather than gravity) to fill a mold with molten metal such as aluminum and magnesium. In this process, the holding furnace is located below the casting, and the liquid metal enters the cavity through the riser pipe. Pressure is applied continuously, and sometimes incrementally fill the mold and hold the metal inside the mold until it solidifies. Once the casting has solidified, the pressure is released and any residual liquid in the tube or cavity is returned to the holding furnace for "recovery". After cooling, simply remove the casting.

How does the low pressure die casting process work? In low pressure die casting, the mold is filled with metal from a pressurized furnace, and the pressure is usually around 0.7 bar. The holding furnace is located in the lower part of the vertical die casting machine, and the molten metal is injected directly into the bottom of the mold upwards. The pressure holds the metal in the mold until it solidifies.

2. What are the low pressure die casting advantages?

Low pressure die casting allows precise control of the filling process. Injecting molten metal in this way reduces oxide formation and reduces porosity, ensuring excellent top-to-bottom consistency. As a result, low pressure die casting produces excellent density and strength values as well as excellent dimensional accuracy. While this method works well for simple, symmetrical shapes, more complex geometries can be achieved by using a sand core inside the mold. With its simple mechanical and technical advantages, the low pressure die casting process is well suited for automation.

3. Low pressure die casting is used in the automotive industry and other industries

For decades, the automotive industry has relied on low pressure die casting to create strong, high-quality aluminum castings. However, due to its relatively slow casting process, its use is mainly limited to luxury grades in the automotive market, which are expected to be small in number and high in cost. Now, while successfully finding ways to make this method more cost-effective (such as making the machine overall larger), the automotive industry has reduced casting cycle time by 50% due to the space savings of its vertical structure and low pressure die casting becomes a more economical option than before.

While low pressure die casting is an excellent choice for automotive components such as engine blocks, wheels, and suspension parts, non-automotive industries such as electronics, machine building, and plumbing components also benefit from lower processing costs, high volumes, and excellent metallurgical quality. The excellent electrical and thermal conductivity of cast aluminum makes it ideal for all of these industries.

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